close

Definitions

General English

  • adjective very near, or just next to something
  • adverb very near in time
  • noun a short road, especially of houses
  • noun an end, the final part
  • verb to come to an end, or make something come to an end

Banking

  • noun the end of a day’s trading on the Stock Exchange

Commerce

  • verb to stop doing business for the day

Computing

  • noun
    (written as CLOSE)
    a command that means the program has finished accessing a particular file or device
  • verb to shut down access to a file or disk drive

Construction

  • An enclosed place, such as the area around a cathedral.
  • A passage from a street to a court and the houses facing it.
  • The common stairway of an apartment building.

Cricket

  • noun
    Same as close of play
    Citation ‘At the close England found themselves very handily placed with the West Indies 239 for seven’ (Matthew Engel, Guardian 14 July 1984)

Electronics

  • To bring to an end. For instance, to end a program, to shut a window, or to terminate a communications link.
  • To make complete, as in a circuit. Closing a circuit enables the flow of current.

Forex

  • (written as Close)
    The last thirty minutes of a trading session, in which final trades of the session are executed. This term may also refer to the price of a security or currency in the last transaction in a given trading session, also called the closing price.

Marketing

  • noun the end of a sales negotiation
  • verb to stop something being open

Medical

  • verb to become covered with new tissue as part of the healing process
  • verb to fix together the sides of a wound after surgery to allow healing to take place

Real Estate

  • noun a residential road, often a cul-de-sac on a modern housing estate

Investing

  • acronymPREVIOUS CLOSE

Origin & History of “close”

Close originally entered English as a verb. It came from clos-, the past participial stem of Old French clore ‘shut’, which was a descendant of Latin claudere (related to Latin clāvis ‘key’, from which English gets clavier, clavichord, clavicle, clef, and conclave, and to Latin clāvus ‘nail’, from which French gets clou ‘nail’ – whence English clove – and English gets cloy). The adjective was quick to follow, via Old French clos, but in this case the intermediate source was the Latin past participial stem claus- rather than the Old French clos-. It originally meant simply ‘shut, enclosed, confined’, and did not evolve the sense ‘near’ until the late 15th century; it arose from the notion of the gap between two things being brought together by being closed off. Related forms in English include clause, cloister, closet (14th c.) (from Old French, ‘small private room’, a diminutive form of clos) and the various verbs ending in -clude, including conclude, include, and preclude.
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