• In the Bulgarian theater, a genre comprising stories aboutthe hayduks, Bulgarian outlaws who were considered freedomfighters against Turkish rule. The plays, which were among the firstworks written in the modern Bulgarian language, inspired the nationalistmovement of the 19th century and also led to a reaction against theauthority of the Greek clergy.

    Writers for the Hayduk theater included Lyuben Karavelov(1834 - 79), whose realistic works centred on small-town everydaylife, and Konstantin Velichkov (1855 - 1907). In the 20th centurythe genre continued to glorify Bulgaria's folk history, despite effortsby the communist authorities to suppress its intense nationalism.