• A masked and costumed street procession held in Jamaica atChristmas. First recorded in the 18th century, the jonkonnuapparently combines elements of the Mummers' Play and theWest African masquerade. Members of the all-male troupes, who areaccompanied by a fife and drum band, remain masked in public and disguisetheir voices. The various characters include the Devil, Jack-in-the-Green,Horse Head, and Belly Woman.