knead, to



  • To mix a stiff dough by repeatedly compressing it and folding in or over; this may be done manually or mechanically by using a dough hook at slow speed. In the case of bread doughs made from strong flour, kneading is used to develop sheets of gluten in the mixture and to incorporate air. The air acts as nuclei for the formation of bubbles of carbon dioxide during rising and proving; the gluten sheets facilitate their retention in the cooking dough.