- A cell in which the anode is lithium metal, a lithium ion, or a material incorporating lithium. The electrolyte may be any of various substances, such as thionyl chloride or iodine, and said electrolyte may be in a liquid or solid state. Such cells may be primary or secondary, the latter usually being lithium-ion cells. Lithium cells feature high energy density, high capacity, long shelf life, a flat discharge characteristic, and a wide operational temperature. They are used, for instance, in portable computers, computer standby clocks, cameras, cell phones, PDAs, pacemakers, medical instruments, and emergency lighting, among many others.