make-up

Definitions

General English

  • phrasal verb
    (written as make up)
    to invent a story
  • phrasal verb
    (written as make up)
    to form something
  • phrasal verb
    (written as make up)
    to become friends again

Investing

  • phrasal verb
    (written as make up)
    to complete the accounts

Media Studies

  • verb
    (written as make up)
    to arrange columns of text and illustrations on a page

Publishing

  • verb
    (written as make up)
    to split text into pages with headlines, page numbers, etc., and arrange typeset material into the correct page formats before printing

Theater

  • The use of cosmetics, false hair and, more recently, prostheticsto suit the appearance of an actor to the character he or she plays.

    Make-up has been widely used in the theater since the declineof the mask. In the medieval European theater it was commonfor the actor's face to be painted in one symbolic colour: gold forGod, red for seraphs, black for the damned, etc. By contrast, theelaborate facial make-up of the oriental theater (or of the Europeanclown) involves the painstaking use of many colours to createa stylized face.

    The practice of using cosmetics to enhance rather than toalter the appearance of actors seems to date from the 16th century.This kind of naturalistic make-up became more important with the introductionof larger auditoriums and new forms of theatrical lighting that renderedthe performer's face pale and indistinct without make-up.

    The make-up of the 16th and 17th centuries seems to have beenrather crude, with reddened noses for drunkards and charcoal usedto darken the skin for Black characters. In the 18th century DavidGarrick developed more naturalistic techniques and was much acclaimedfor his use of cosmetics to convey age.

    Early theatrical make-up usually consisted of a powder basemixed with water and some kind of grease. Often the white paint usedfor clowns, ghosts, or ladies of fashion was lead-based and dangerousas the poison could be absorbed through the skin. It was not untilthe mid 19th century that modern greasepaint was invented by LudwigLeichner, an opera singer. The pre-mixed cosmetics supplied in stick form andnumbered by shade were easier and more accurate to use and the colourslong-lasting.

    In recent years developments in plastics have allowed exoticprosthetic effects to be created. Although these have usually beendeveloped for the cinema they are now used more widely in the theater.However, such pieces are expensive to produce and uncomfortable towear, as they are usually glued to the actor's skin.

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