General English


  • noun a common edible fungus, often grown commercially


  • The spreading out of concrete at the top of a caisson pier, causing it to be wider than the thickness of the foundation wall.


  • A general name given to various edible fungi but in the UK the name is generally applied to the common mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, which is widely cultivated and the field mushroom, Agaricus campestris. Common mushrooms are sold as buttons (completely closed caps to 2 cm diameter), closed cup (skin still closed below cup to 4 cm diameter), open cup (pink gills visible) and flat (fully open with dark brown gills). Other common types of cultivated mushroom in the UK are oyster, chestnut and shiitake.


  • noun an innocent bystander caught in the crossfire of a gunfight. This term, from the jargon of the Jamaican yardie ‘Shower Posse’, was reported in the Sunday Times, 14 November 1993.


  • noun a small white fungus which grows wild in fields, but is usually grown commercially in mushroom farms