• A form of rural entertainment once popular in northern India, thoughnow seldom seen. It consisted mostly of hectic farce, with clowns providingwit and tumbles as well as harassing and satirizing the audience. Theall-male troupes travelled through towns and villages to perform atweddings and other celebrations. The 'theater' was usually a street,yard, private home, or other setting that allowed them to mingle withtheir audience. The group's leader was called the khalifa,a term that probably reflects the Naqal's origin during the MuslimMogul dynasty.