- The production or creation of a state in which there are two opposite or opposing attributes, magnitudes, or the like. For instance, the application of an external electric field so as to separate the electric charges of an object or body, thus forming a positive and a negative pole.
- A property of an electromagnetic wave which describes the time-varying direction of the electric field vector. Such polarization may be classified, for instance, as circular, elliptical, or linear, each of which describes the shaped traced by the electric field vector as a function of time. Polarization may also be defined in terms of the direction of the electric field with respect to a transmitting antenna or another reference, such as the surface of the earth, in which case it is said to have horizontal or vertical polarization. Also called wave polarization.
- The confining of the vibrations of an electromagnetic wave, such as light, to a single plane, as opposed to the innumerable planes rotating around the vector axis. For instance, the production of plane-polarized light from unpolarized light.
- The orientation of the radiated and received electric lines of flux of an antenna, in relation to the surface of the earth. Also called antenna polarization.
- A phenomenon observed in dielectrics, in which the electrons in each atom are displaced in the direction opposite to that of an applied electric field, while the nucleus of each atom is displaced in the direction of said field. Also called dielectric polarization, or electric polarization.
- The lining up of magnetic dipoles in a material. In a ferromagnetic material magnetic polarization occurs spontaneously due to the mutual attraction of said dipoles. Also called magnetic polarization.
- In certain electric cells, chemical processes which shorten the useful life. For example, bubbles which may form around an electrode, hence increasing the internal resistance of such a cell.