run

Definitions

General English

  • noun the act of going quickly on foot, usually as a sport
  • verb to go quickly on foot
  • verb to drive someone by car

General Science

  • noun a period of operation of a machine, or the amount produced in one period of operation
  • verb to operate an engine or other device
  • verb to move rapidly with both feet sometimes off the ground

Accounting

  • noun a rush to buy something

Agriculture

Banking

  • to be in a particular state or to be taking place in a particular way
  • noun a period of time during which a machine is working
  • verb to manage or to organise something

Cars & Driving

  • noun a paint fault consisting of the trail of a paint drip or a dribble of paint

Commerce

  • noun a regular route (of a plane or bus)

Computing

  • noun the execution by a computer of a set of instructions, programs or procedures
  • verb to operate, or to make a device operate

Construction

  • In plumbing, a pipe or fitting that continues in the same straight line as the direction of flow.
  • In roofing, the horizontal distance between the outer face of the wall and the roof ridge.
  • In stairs, the horizontal distance from the face of the first riser to the face of the last riser.
  • Series of surveyed elevation changes in one direction.
  • To sieve plaster or putty.
  • window sash.

Cricket

  • noun an act of running from one popping crease to the other by both batsmen simultaneously, each batsman reaching the other end of the pitch without his wicket being broken by the fielding side; completion of this procedure results in a score of one being added to the batting side’s total
    Citation ‘Each umpire is the sole Judge of all nips and Catches; Inns and Outs; good or bad Runs, at his own Wicket’ (Laws 1744)
    Citation ‘Gatting committed himself to the run and was run out by about a foot’ (Matthew Engel, Guardian 24 March 1984)
    Citation ‘Through the last five years Dravid, by sheer weight of runs, has been the most valuable batsman in the Indian side’ (Mukul Kesavan, Cricinfo Magazine August 2006)
  • noun any of the scoring units that are credited to the total score of a team or individual and are gained in any of the following ways: (a) by the completion of a ‘run’ (see 1); (b) by the ball crossing the boundary while in play; (c) by the awarding of penalty runs such as those for a no-ball or wide. The runs of a batsman comprise all those made as a result of actual hits, while the runs of a team comprise all those made by any legitimate means.
  • noun a team’s margin of victory expressed in terms of the number of runs by which the losing side’s aggregate score falls short of that of the winning side
    Citation ‘Earlier in the year, a Hong Kong ladies representative side had made the trip to Shanghai, losing to the Shanghai pearls by one run’ (Mike Tsemelis, Wisden 2005)
    See result
  • noun a bowler’s running approach to the bowling crease prior to delivering the ball; run-up
    Citation ‘Willis, off his short run, quickly wrapped up the innings by taking the last four wickets’ (Andrew Longmore, Cricketer April 1984)
    Citation ‘Before the fast bowler began his run he held the ball up and shook it at Cudjoe, and Cudjoe in turn held up his bat and shook it at the bowler’ (James 1963)
  • verb to cross from one wicket to the other in order to score a run
    Citation ‘There are no set rules as to how to run … but there are certain points pretty generally accepted and followed’ (Ranjitsinhji 1897)
  • verb to obtain a stated number of runs by actually running, rather than by hitting a boundary
    Citation ‘Bailey … was hit into the deep by Davidson, at which the batsmen once again ran four, quite a common occurrence on this immensely long ground’ (Peebles 1959)
  • verb to act as a runner to an incapacitated batsman
    Citation ‘Tyldesley came in with Rhodes to run for him, his leg still being painful’ (Melbourne Argus 17 December 1903)
    Citation ‘Ganga, running for Edwards, did his bit to calm the duo down’ (Siddhartha Vaidyanathan, Cricinfo Magazine July 2006)
  • verb to deflect the ball off an angled bat so that it goes along the ground into the area backward of square, usually on the off-side
    Citation ‘Greenidge, trying to run one wide of slip, was caught by Downton’ (John Thicknesse, WCM September 1984)
    See popping crease See also extras, short run

Electronics

  • To execute a computer program.
  • To perform one or more jobs or tasks. Also, the performance of one or more jobs or tasks.
  • To operate, cause to operate, or be operated. Also, an instance of operation, or a period of operation.
  • To lay, suspend, or otherwise place cabling or wiring.

Information & Library Science

  • verb to take charge of and be responsible for an organisation or activity
  • verb to make a machine work

Media Studies

Medical

  • verb to drip with liquid secreted from the mucous membrane in the nasal passage

Politics

  • verb to offer yourself as a candidate in an election

Slang

  • noun a rally by Hell’s Angels, usually involving a lengthy mobile debauch
  • noun an initial euphoric sensation following the ingestion or injection of a narcotic, particularly heroin; a rush
  • verb to denigrate, humiliate. A term reflecting the ritualistic status games of adolescent gangs, it is probably an abbreviated form of the colloquial meaning of ‘run down’. The term was recorded in use among North London schoolboys in 1993 and 1994.

Sports

  • noun a rapid pace faster than a walk or jog
  • noun a race in which the competitors run
  • noun a point scored in cricket, usually when one or both batsmen run between the wickets
  • noun a score in baseball made by travelling round all the bases to home plate

Theater

  • A series of consecutive nightly performances of a play. A longrun means the play was performed repeatedly over a long period,owing to its popularity. A short run means that the show failedto find favour with the public and was soon withdrawn.

    The longest continuously running play in theatrical historyis Agatha Christie's The Mousetrap, which opened in the WestEnd in 1952 and is still showing over 50 years later at St Martin's Theatre.The shortest run on record is that of Bulwer Lytton's The Lady of Lyons.On the play's opening night (26 December 1838) technical problemsprevented the raising of the curtain: the audience waited in the seatsfor an hour before going home. see also flop.

Travel

  • verb to manage e.g. a hotel or restaurant

Origin & History of “run”

Run is quite a widespread Germanic verb, represented also by German rennen and Swedish ränna. Its ultimate ancestry is not known, although links have been suggested with Sanskrit rnoti ‘he moves’ and Greek órnūmi ‘rouse’. The Old English verb was rinnan; run, which was originally a past form, did not begin to emerge as the infinitive until the early 14th century, and it was not common until the 16th century. Runnel ‘brook’ (OE) comes from the same Germanic source, and rennet may be related.
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