- Producing more than you need of some things, and less of others, hence "specializing" in the first. In international trade, this is just the opposite of self-sufficiency.
- Doing less than everything, as when a country produces fewer different goods than it consumes. In a 2x2 trade model, this means a country produces just one good. With many goods and countries, it means a country has some goods that it does not (and cannot competitively) produce. Also may be called complete specialization.