specific gravity


General Science


  • The ratio of the mass of a unit volume of a material at a stated temperature to the mass of the same volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated temperature.
  • The ratio of the density of one substance to another when used as the standard. Water is the standard for determining specific gravity of solids and liquids; hydrogen is used for gases.


  • The ratio of the density of a given material or medium, to that of a standard material or medium. For example, the ratio of the density of a material to that of water at 4°C at one atmosphere, or the ratio of the density of a gas to that of dry air at 0 °C at one atmosphere. Its abbreviation is sp gr. Also called relative density.
  • abbreviationsp gr


  • The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water at the same temperature. It has no units and substances with a specific gravity greater than 1 will sink in water, whilst if less than 1 they will float. sugar solutions and brines have a specific gravity greater than 1, oils and fats less than 1.
  • acronymSG


  • a scale used to measure the density of a liquid, including wine, and compare it to the density of pure water. It is measured on the Brix, Oechsle or Baumé scales in different parts of the world. grape juice with natural sugars dissolved in the liquid has a specific gravity higher than pure water, but this drops during fermentation as the sugar is converted into alcohol, which has a specific gravity lower than pure water.

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