standard

Definitions

General English

Agriculture

  • noun something which has been agreed on and is used to measure other things by
  • noun a plant grown on a single long stem that is kept from forming branches except at the top
  • noun a type of fruit tree or rose tree where the stem is about two metres high, on top of which the head is developed
  • noun a large tree in a woodland

Aviation

  • noun something, e.g. a quality or measure, that is officially recognised as an example that others must conform with

Computing

  • noun the normal quality or normal conditions which are used to judge other things

Construction

  • A grade of lumber suitable for general construction and characterized by generally good strength and serviceability. In light framing rules, the standard grade applies to lumber that is 2" to 4" thick and 2" to 4" wide. It falls between the construction and utility grades.
  • A grade of Idaho white pine boards equivalent to #3 common in other species.
  • In the British timber trade, a quantity of lumber that equals 1,980 board feet.
  • General recognition and conformity to established practice.

Economics

  • Rule and/or procedure specifying characteristics that must be met for a product to be sold in a country's domestic market, typically to protect health and safety. When a standard puts foreign producers at a disadvantage, it may constitute an NTB.

Electronics

  • An established reference against which comparisons or verifications may be made. A de facto standard is adopted through continued use and acceptance, while a de jure standard is issued or endorsed by a entity which establishes standards.
  • A component, circuit, device, instrument, piece of equipment, or system, whose parameters or specifications are known precisely, and which serves as a basis for verification, comparison, or the like. For instance, a standard capacitance, or a standard resistance.
  • A component, circuit, device, instrument, piece of equipment, or system whose output, such as a frequency, voltage, amplitude, level, or the like, is precisely known, and which serves as a basis for comparisons or verifications. For example, an atomic frequency standard.
  • A specification, such as that for software, hardware, a format, or protocol, which is widely accepted, or assigned to serve as a model or basis. For instance, the OSI Reference Model.
  • A transmission and reception system which is established for a given communications or broadcast format. Examples include the high-definition, NTSC, and PAL TV standards.
  • abbreviationstd

Information & Library Science

  • noun a level by which people or the quality of work can be judged

Medical

  • noun a level of quality achieved by someone or something

Military

  • adjective officially recognized as the correct way to do something
  • noun a measure of quality, by which all similar things are judged
  • noun a regimental flag (especially in cavalry regiments)

Origin & History of “standard”

Standard ‘flag, banner’ (12th c.) denotes etymologically something that is ‘extended’ or unfurled. The word comes from Anglo-Norman estaundart ‘flag displayed on a battlefield so that troops can rally to it’. this was a derivative of Old French estendre ‘extend’ (first cousin of English extend). The sense ‘criterion, norm’, which emerged in the 15th century, is probably a metaphorical application of the notion of the ‘royal standard’ or banner as being the point from which authoritative commands (as of standards of weight and measurement) are issued. Standard ‘upright object, such as a tree’ (13th c.) is probably an alteration of stander.
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